Thursday, August 27, 2020
NURSING LITERATURE ( REPORT) - Research Paper Example The individuals who fulfilled above models were incorporated; others were barred. The incorporation measures with cofacilitators concentrated on the assorted variety in their age and on their involvement in SBSGs. Additionally on the individuals who were eager about gathering and the individuals who had reservations. Information immersion was arrived at when no new data was gotten. 2. What kind of examining configuration is this? Is the testing structure a likelihood or non-likelihood procedure? This is a non-likelihood examining plan. This was a comfort test in that it was promptly accessible. There was little control/limit over members beside guaranteeing that they spoke to/incorporated certain models. 3. What was the example size? Is this size sufficient for the sort of study (subjective or quantitative)? What was the setting for the investigation? This was a subjective report, which, by and large, can have a littler example than a quantitative report. It, for the most part, attempts to accumulate an adequate number so as to accomplish wealth and profundity. Its example size here was 21 members (7 guys and 14 females). Adequate for this sort of study. The setting was two diverse secondary schools in a Midwest rural zone that included understudies from center and lower financial foundations. managers, school chairmen, bunch cofacilitators, and members (2) Participant perceptions that were directed week after week at two secondary schools in the school area more than one semester. (3) A center gathering assessment that was directed at the determination of a care group held at one of the two secondary schools. (4) Written assessments that were acquired at the last gathering meeting at the two locales. The procedure: Initial meetings spoke to appropriate structures and reports being reviewed (for example, the program manual, a lot of minutes from a school counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting, and gathering assessments from one advocate.) Participants were watched for 4 hours. Perceptions included 5
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Problem Solution Essay Topics For High SchoolA student preparing for the SAT/ACT has many problem solution essay topics for high school. The topics should be relevant to the SAT/ACT exam and should be designed to challenge the student to explore and express thought.Students often have difficulty making sense of the kinds of questions that are asked on the SAT/ACT. The test requires you to interpret your answers to be able to assess your knowledge. You can also be assessed based on how well you connect your answers to the information presented. Essay topics for high school provide a way for students to express their thoughts and to communicate an explanation of what they have learned.There are several types of essay topics for high school, but the most common ones involve tests or projects. The essay questions often contain a theme that the student will work with throughout the essay. The theme could be a project, a real-life event, an argument, or a metaphor. The student is responsib le for establishing the theme. Students should begin with an understanding of the theme before they begin to write the essay.Several factors determine which problem solving essay topics for high school are appropriate. These include the student's level of experience in the subject area, the topic itself, and the student's strengths and weaknesses in the subject area. For example, a senior English student that is interested in the history of World War II would probably consider writing an essay about that conflict. Likewise, a senior mathematics student would probably not have a good understanding of general statistics. A junior tennis player would not be well suited to a problem solving essay on the difference between tennis and golf.Not all high school students want to participate in more complex types of essays. Many people prefer a more conversational style of writing. Students who enjoy this type of essay may not wish to write a direct response to a question. They may simply be concerned with exploring ideas that will be of interest to other people.The types of essay topics for high school that fit this approach include inquiry, narrative, response, or interview type essays. Each of these types of essay requires a different type of essay writing style. Students who are aware of the difference between the styles of writing required in different types of essays will benefit from taking courses in composition.Before submitting their essay, students should also research the topic of the essay topics for high school. Searching for resources that might be helpful is important. Many students will find that learning about various types of essay writing helps them to prepare for the written portion of the test. Taking a few lessons in composition or even completing practice essays is a good idea.A student who is preparing for the SAT/ACT should spend time researching essay topics for high school. Students who take several practice essays during their freshman year of high school will have a better understanding of how to write a good essay in college. The preparation of the essays will be easier for students who take the extra time to research the material needed to write an essay. Essay topics for high school have a wide variety of options for essay topics, so it is possible to prepare for the SAT/ACT by learning about the subject.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Sample Self-Pity EssaysHere are samples of self-pity and I have tried to sum up some common themes in self-pity. It is probably not a bad idea to run these through the stress test too.Sample A: this is from a student who has been bullied at school. He talks about how he was made fun of and humiliated by other students. He says he wants to be better than all those bullies but he is too shy to speak up for himself. 'I am a total coward', he says.Sample B: this is from a student who hates his parents and feels rejected by them. He wants to escape into a life without his parents. 'I am afraid that the same thing is happening to me', he says. He admits that he feels guilty because he says he is unable to handle his emotions. He knows that when he lets his emotions get the better of him, he will let people down.Sample C: this is from a student who feels that he is a failure because he is not good at sports. He says he has always hated himself for being a loser and says he does not feel goo d at all.Sample D: this is from a student who constantly complains about his grades and feels that he is worthless. He wants to become successful so he can change all of that. 'I will become a self-made man', he says.Sample E: this is from a student who tells a story about how he was humiliated by other students because he was fat. The story of how he became fat and why he was able to lose it. He tells how he is now a healthy, happy student who enjoys speaking in public.Self-pity is a very uncomfortable thing to read but sometimes it is necessary to express your deepest feelings. There are times when you feel low and in need of help. It is an excellent way to vent your feelings and to learn to accept yourself.Self-pity is not easy to read but it is important that you do not try to control your feelings. We all have our own set of challenges but learning to accept yourself will help you cope with the inevitable.
Monday, May 25, 2020
Becoming a knight was a long and difficult process. a person to become a knight would start training as a child somewhere near 7 years of age. Knights in training had to learn things like sword techniques, protection and bravery. The first rules taught in early childhood where things such as rules and basic education which were usually taught at home. Then from 7 to 14 they would be given the role of Medieval page, this page was the duty of waiting at a table, care for the kings clothes and help them when dressing. The page also meant they would act like servants of the castle and being given or recognised as receiving the page meant getting a uniform which would vary in coulor and pattern due to age. A medieval squire was like a servant to a knight. The role of being a squire was the next step to becoming a true knight and was very important. The purpose/duties of becoming a squire were to learn from the knights, for example they learned things such as Chivalry, the rules of Heraldr y, horsemanship and proper use of weapons and skills of a knight. They also had to become involved in other castle trainings such as jousting and music. Finally after a long period of time through the teaching and practices of becoming a Knight, there training would be complete and celebrated at a ceremony. The ceremony consisted of the now coming knight being dubbed with these words Ã¢â¬Å"Arise, sir KnightÃ¢â¬ This marked their final step to KnightHood. Knights didnÃ¢â¬â¢t wear normal clothing as everyoneShow MoreRelatedCase Study : Managing Ethical Organization1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNike brand was created in 1972, and renamed to Nike in 1978, and has since grown to be the largest worldwide seller of athletic goods, with approximately 168 Nike stores in the United States and a presence in about 160 countries. (Ferrell, O.., 2003) During the time Nike brand was created corporate responsibility was not considered a major deal yet and there were several actions taken to help increase profits by cutting corners to ensure profit was made for the company. One way, which was adoptedRead MoreTransforming the High Middle Ages Essay932 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMiddle Ages brought quick improvements in agriculture, war, and knowledge. Education and scholasticism were encouraged and were increasing in importance. Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas was Ã¢â¬ ¦ of a sharp intellect, amiable in his manners, and of such keen powers of reasoning as to be able prude ntly to solve abstruse and difficult questions; and so retentive was his memory, that whatever he had once heard or read he could recall whenever he pleased without an effort.Ã¢â¬ (Life of Thomas Becket) Whether parents or professorsRead MoreFrank Millers 300 Movie Review827 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesVendetta Ã¢â¬â just to name a small, select few from his brilliant library of ideas. Miller is also responsible for bringing the legend of the 300 to comic book form in 1998, which was so remarkable and breathtaking that it was adapted to film in the popular 2007 action flick, 300 Ã¢â¬â starring Gerard Butler. And, after seven long years, the battle with King Xerxes continues in the epic war continuation, 300: Rise of an Empire. Directed by Noam Murro and based on Frank MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s yet to be published storyRead MoreEvaluation Of A Recovery Oriented Practitioner1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Others Diagnosed With This Disorder -Becoming a Recovery-Oriented Practitioner. We would start by analysing each article with a view to understanding the similarities and differences that will be later discussed. Recovery From Schizophrenia: With Views of Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Others Diagnosed With This Disorder The article was written by Frederick J. Frese III, Edward L. Knight and Elyn Saks; all trained professionals specialising in schizophrenia.Read MoreEssay about The Death Penalty2308 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesfamily member or someone you love is walking down the street and that man who was looking for their next victim found them. It was a family member and you will never see them again. Capital punishment has been a topic of debate for a very long time and it still has no certain solution. The Supreme Court, in 1972 said that it was unconstitutional and had made it legal after the Furman v. Georgia case. They said that it was in violation of our eighth and fourteenth amendment citing cruel and unusualRead MoreThe End Of Law By John Locke1843 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagestheir jobs. While using fear and oppression as motivators does the job, respect as a motivator is much more effective because people will obey the law and be content with it rather than becoming increasingly discontent to the point that they try to overthrow it; in the United States, however, respect is becoming harder to achieve with the growing animosity towards the police because of the recent stories of police brutality. While police brutality focuses mostly on physical and verbal attacks andRead MoreJob As A Trail Supervisor s Assistant1578 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfind most of the resumes youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read so far are full of information that have nothing to do with the position youÃ¢â¬â¢ve advertised to be filled. Is it really best to put down every little bit of experience that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had in your life on a resume? How long would that resume be? Picture yourself as the employer and you want to hire someone for a job as a trail supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s assistant. Would you want to know about every detail a person has experienced in their lives? Even when they flipped burgers in aRead MoreWork Is a Source of Satisfaction and Joy for Individuals2122 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageswill be referring to Rosen (1988), Ackoryd and Crowdy (1990) and Knights et al (1982), by introducing some of the possible reasons why individual work. Additionally in Section Two of the essay, I will explore the positive aspects relating to work and how these aspects can play a part in relations to the individuals emotionally, physically and mentally, by drawing upon Jackall (1988), Rosen (1988), Ackroyd and C rowdy (1990), Knights and Roberts (1982) and Jackson and Carter (2000). Furthermore inRead MoreAnalysis Of Geoffrey Chaucer s The Canterbury Tales 1697 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmostly receipts and some fill in the blank. I will go with the receipts and will be writing about ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s forefathers, his early life, then his middle years, later years and death, then I will go more in detail about his major poetry works as it is difficult to place many of them into certain points in the timeline and also about the influence of his works on the linguistic and literary levels. Several previous generations of family before Chaucer were merchants in Ipswich which is one of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreKing Lear Character Analysis1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescontrol; this combined with his temper and enormous selfishness created room for many mental outbursts. Best stated by Henry Hudson (1911) in his character study of Lear: Ã¢â¬Å"We see in him something of constitutional rashness of temper, which, moreover, has long been fostered by the indulgences and flatteries incident to his station, and which, through the cripplingÃ¢â¬â¢s of age, is now working loose from the restraints of his manlier judgment.Ã¢â¬ King Lear has been portrayed as many things throughout time and in
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Recursion is the repeated sequential use of a particular type of linguistic element or grammatical structure. Also called linguistic recursion. Recursion has also been described more simply as the ability to place one component inside another component of the same kind. A linguistic element or grammatical structure that can be used repeatedly in a sequence is said to be recursive. Examples and Observations If you build an earthen home now, think of the wonder on the face of your great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great-great grandchild! (Ianto Evans, Michael G. Smith, and Linda Smiley, The Hand-Sculpted House: A Philosophical and Practical Guide to Building a Cob Cottage. Chelsea Green, 2002)Some . . . affixes are mildly recursive: re-re-write, anti-anti-war, great-great-grandmother. This type of morphological recursion (where the same affixal form is repeated without intervening morphemes) appears to be unique to this functional category across languages, though most . . . affixes are not recursive. (Edward J. Vajda, Referential and Grammatical Function in Morphological Typology. Linguistic Diversity and Language Theories, ed. by Zygmunt Frajzyngier, Adam Hodges, and David S. Rood. John Benkamin s, 2005)He can take a letter from you to her and then one from her to you and then one from you to her and then one from her to you and then one from you to her and then one . . . (P.G. Wodehouse, Thank You, Jeeves, 1934)Didnt matter if the fe-fe was a VP, VIP, stay-at-home wife, his wife, his sister, a lover, an employee, an associate, a groupie, a counterpart, smart, fine, dumb, ugly, dumb and ugly, a model, a hooker, a Christian, his best friend, or his mother. (Mary B. Morrison, Hes Just a Friend. Kensington, 2003)Ã (4a) The tiger is a large, fierce carnivore.(4b) He was a tall, handsome, witty doctor.(4c) They wereÃ inky, dusty, grey old men. The fact that English permits more than one adjective in a sequence in this manner is an example of a more general feature of languages that linguists call recursion. In English, prenominal adjectives are recursive. Simply put, this means that prenominal adjectives can be stacked, with several appearing successively in a string, each of them attributing some property to the noun. In principle, there is no limit to the number of adjectives that can modify a noun. Or better, there is no grammatical limit. (Martin J. Endley, Linguistic Perspectives on English Grammar: A Guide for EFL Teachers. Information Age, 2010) A Stack of Bowls In English, recursion is often used to create expressions that modify or change the meaning of one of the elements of the sentence. For example, to take the word nails and give it a more specific meaning, we could use an object relative clause such as that Dan bought, as in Hand me the nails that Dan bought. In this sentence, the relative clause that Dan bought (which could be glossed as Dan bought the nails) is contained within a larger noun phrase: the nails (that Dan bought (the nails)). So the relative clause is nested within a larger phrase, kind of like a stack of bowls.(Matthew J. Traxler, Introduction to Psycholinguistics: Understanding Language Science. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012) Recursion and Infinitude [One] factor that encourages linguists to believe that human languages are infinite sets stems from a presumed connection between linguistic creativity and the infinite cardinality of languages. Note, for example, this statement by [Noam] Chomsky (1980: 221-222): . . . the rules of the grammar must iterate in some manner to generate an infinite number of sentences, each with its specific sound, structure, and meaning. We make use of this recursive property of grammar constantly in everyday life. We construct new sentences freely and use them on appropriate occasions... He is suggesting that because we construct new sentences, we must be using recursion, so the grammar must generate infinitely many sentences. Note also the remark of Lasnik (2000: 3) that The ability to produce and understand new sentences is intuitively related to the notion of infinity. No one will deny that human beings have a marvelous, highly flexible array of linguistic abilities. These abilities are not just a matter of being able to respond verbally to novel circumstances, but of being capable of expressing novel propositions, and of re-expressing familiar propositions in new ways. But infinitude of the set of all grammatical expressions is neither necessary nor sufficient to describe or explain linguistic creativity... The infinitude of human languages has not been independently established--and could not be. It does not represent a factual claim that can be used to support the idea that the properties of human language must be explicated via generative grammars involving recursion. Positing a generative grammar does not entail infinitude for the generated language anyway, even if there is recursion present in the rule system. (Geoffrey K. Pullum and Barbara C. Scholz, Recursion and the Infinitude Claim. Recursion and Human Language, ed. by Harry Van Der Huls t. Walter de Gruyter, 2010)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Theory Based Health Interventions applying Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action to the prevention of HIV and STDs HED 525: Health Behavior and Health Education 11/17/2014 Theories: As a health educator, developing theory-based health behavior change interventions is an integral part of promoting health in the community. The theories chosen for this topic have been frequently applied to the prevention of HIV and STDs in various countries and various target populations. The research presented on this topic will provide evidence on how well the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planed Behavior/Reasoned Action were applied in each situation in regards to the prevention of HIV and STDS. According to Glanz, Rimer, and Viswanath (2008) the Health Belief Model attempts to explain why people do or do not engage in specific health behaviors such as taking action to prevent, screen for, or to control illness conditions through concepts including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits and barriers to a behavior, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Perceived susceptibility is defined as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs about the likelihood of getting a disease or condition. Perceived severity is defined as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about the seriousness of contracting an illness or of leaving it untreated. Perceived benefits are described as influencing whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived susceptibility will lead to behavior change. Perceived Barriers are described asShow MoreRelated Improving the Effectiveness of Sex Education in Schools Essay980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe question is no longer should sex education be taught, but rather how should it be taught. Over 93% of all pub lic high schools currently offer courses on sexuality or HIV. More than 510 junior and senior high schools have school-linked health clinics, and more than 300 schools make condoms available on campus. The question now is, are these programs effective, and if not, how can we make them better? Kids need the right information to help protect them-selves. The US has more than doubleRead MoreUse of Social Marketing to Control the STDs Pandemic Essay1945 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescentury has seen a pandemic that is wrecking just as much havoc on the globe- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and one in particular- HIV and AIDs. The focus of this paper will explore past interventions using social marketing and Social Network Theory as their foundation to encourage condom usage to prevent the spread of STDs. Public Health Concern In modern times, STDs (such as HIV and AIDs) have wrecked such havoc upon the globe with more than 35.3 million being affected in 2012 (UNAIDSRead MoreReduction Of Stds And Hiv Essay2038 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesReduction of STDs and HIV in Adolescent Women An Analysis of the Reduction Program: Sisters Saving Sisters Ashley Reid CPH 330: Human Sexuality Dr. Mary Koss THE PROBLEM The aim of the intervention program Sisters Saving Sisters (SSS) is to help prevent and reduce HIV and other STDs rates in young African American and Hispanic women. Sisters Saving Sisters aims to reduce the overall number of sexual partners adolescent women have to decrease their risk of contracting HIV or otherRead MoreSociological Perspectives On Sexual Activity1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesphysically and emotionally and although engaging in sexual activity is a personal decision, taking risks can certainly have outside influences. Psychologist Urie BronfenbreenerÃ¢â¬â¢s ecological perspective theory posits that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development is formed through interconnected influences with their environment based on a layered system. These systems include: microsystem (direct connection to groups or institutions), mesosystem (the interconnection between microsystem components), exosystem (social settingsRead MoreCost Effectiveness Of Daily Oral Prep For Msm1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pag esJuusola et al. (2012) added to this literature with a study of the cost-effectiveness of daily oral PrEP for MSM. Using a detailed economic analysis combined with the dynamic progression and transmission of HIV/AIDS model, the researchers assessed PrEP cost-effectiveness (based on clinical trials showing a 44 percent reduction in infection) in the general MSM population, and among high-risk MSM. The results indicate that initiating PrEP in 20 percent of U.S. MSM over 20 years would yield a 13 percentRead More African Americans, HIV and AIDA Essay2302 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesepidemic proportions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, there are an estimated 1 million Americans infected with AIDS and 40,000-80,000 new infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) each year. There are few people who do not know someone who has died of AIDS, and it is estimated that, early in the new millennium, some forty million people worldwide will be infected with HIV, and ten million of them will develop AIDS. Research and statistics revealsRead MoreCore Functions Of Public Health993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfunctions of Public health are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assessment: Monitoring the health needs of a community along with investigating and analyzing the health hazards. This helps in diagnosing the extent of a health issue and hence aids in the development of health interventions. Assessment helps in accumulating information on the status of a public health problem within a community using approaches such a statistics, epidemiologic studies etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Policy Development: This is required to address the health needs of a communityRead MoreThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfew diseases have been as antagonistic as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The global transmission of this disease has been perpetuated by the ease of long distance travel and immigration (Magis-Rodriguez, 2004; Xu et al., 2014). Throughout the past 35 years the course of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as patterns of immigration, have changed immensely. Given the increase in both HIV and immigration, specifically in North Carolina (NC), this dissertation willRead MoreThe Center For Disease Control And Prevention2231 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) states that more than a million people in the United States alone are living with, and dying from Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and almos t one in seven people are unaware of their HIV infection status. Over the past decade, the number of people living with HIV has increased, while the annual number of new HIV infections worldwide has remained relatively high. The trend of new infectionsRead MoreRisk on Studen Prostitute in Zamboanga City4811 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesboyfriend, or whether one is in college and needs to pay for next semesterÃ¢â¬â¢s tuition and one works at a strip club behind glass where men never actually touch you Ã¢â¬â all these forms of prostitution hurt the women in it. (Melissa Farley,. 1-28-2000) HEALTH PROBLEM In the Philippines student prostitute working in club or bars and school keep and entertaining their customer as they can give. Nearly all student prostitutes can be fine and taken from anywhere they agree for having a short time and long
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: 1. Discuss the different long-term sources of finance available to companies and theories that discuss their risk/return characteristics and optimum capital structure. With reference to the accounts then discuss the long term capital structure of the chosen company and what this may indicate about the companys attitude to risk. You may need to refer to the specific note in the notes to the accounts to get detailed information on this. Part of your answer to this question should include calculation of a suitable gearing ratio. 2. Discuss relevant working capital management theories. Then calculate suitable working capital ratios and discuss how efficiently the company is managing its short-term sources of finance. 3. Discuss the range of dividend policies available to companies, why certain companies may choose certain policies and what sort of dividend policy the directors of the company seem to be following and possible reasons for this. 4. Assess the profitability and risk of the company and how attractive it appears to be to potential investors, in doing so make use of market structure analysis internal to the industry. Your answer should include some evaluation of the type of external economic environment of the company and the business models used. Suggest how Minsky analysis can be applied to the company and market you have chosen. Answer: Introduction Apple Inc. Is a software and communication companies, which operates in various parts of the globe. The company was in a struggling position during the 90s era but it bounced back under the guidance of Steve Jobs (Hillier et al. 2013). In 1995, the company reported its first profits and paid its first dividends. The given report discusses the various financing aspects of the company and aims to address the various assessment questions. Discussion Answer 1 A business cannot run without finance. Many companies prefer to have long-term sources of finance as long term sources of finance need not be paid off immediately and can be utilized for the development of the business. There are various sources of long-term finance and they have been discussed below. Equity Shares A public limited company may raise appropriate funds from the promoters of the business or from the public. This can be done by issuing ordinary equity shares. The shareholders achieve ownership rights and tend to get dividends made on the profit of the company (Flannery and Hankins 2013).They tend to undertake the risk of the company. From the point of view of a company, this can be described as a good source of finance for the company. However, the shareholders tend to get involved in the decision making of the firm. However, this kind of financing can be considered a safe option, as the dividends need to be paid if the firm does not earn profit. The capital structure of the firm is divided into various classes of shares (Fracassi 2016).However, they are not tax deductable and this increases the tax expenses of the company. Preference Shares This is similar to the shares but they carry preferential rights. These rights means that dividends needs to be paid to the shareholders first and then to others. In case of winding up of the company, these preference shareholders are given their capital first. These are similar to debts but are not tax deductible. As there are no fixed charges involved the leveraging costs are, lower (Ehrhardt and Brigham 2016). One advantage of this type of share is that the shareholders do not have any voting rights therefore; the management interference is minimum in this case. Debentures Very often, the companies aim to acclaim finance for long-term purposes through debentures. Debentures also divide the capital of the firm into different debentures. The investors of the company can purchase those debentures and these debentures pay out interests. The interests can be paid out irrespective of the profitability of the firm (Vernimmen et al. 2014). The debenture holders may not have voting rights but they would surely receive their debt amount. The interest on debentures is tax deductable and this tends to save costs for the company. Retained Earnings These are the savings of the company, which tend to be used by the company for the welfare of the organization. Safest form of financing Long term Loans These are taken from various financial institutions, which then charge interest to the borrowers. The interest charged is tax deductable. This form also does not affect the decision making of the firm. The Apple Company follows both a debt as well as equity capital structure. The company has Long-term debts of $194714000 as per September 2017 and total equity of 134,047,000 The suitable gearing ratio for the company would be Debt to Equity Ratio, which measures the solvency of the firm and is calculated as total debt divide by total equity. The ratio has deteriorated from 2015 to 2017 (Moffett, Stonehill and Eiteman 2017). The Debt Equity Ratio is = 194714000/134047000 =1.5 This indicates higher rate of debt financing. Answer 2 Working Capital Management Working capital Management concentrates on the various issues that arise in managing the day-to-day transactions in the business. The main objective of the working capital management is to manage the current assets as well as the current liabilities of the firm in a way that the satisfactory level of the working capital is maintained. Theories of Working Capital Management Hedging Approach- In this approach the maturity of the various sources of the fund should match with the nature of the assets that need to be financed (Keen 2013). The hedging approach tends to suggest that there exists seasonal variations and that along with permanent financing, short-term finances should be obtained. Conservative Approach- In the conservative Approach, it is stated that the total funds requirement should be met by long-term sources whereas the short-term funds should only be used in cases of emergency. Aggressive approach- The aggressive approach states that a part of the permanent working capital of the firm can financed by short-term sources. This approach tends to minimize the excess liquidity while meeting the short-term requirements. Hence, the company needs to follow a suitable method of working capital and meet their own requirements accordingly. The primary working capital ratio is the current ratio, which can be calculated by dividing the current assets by current liabilities. Current Assets= 128645000$ Current Liabilities= 100814000$ Ratio = 1.2 The current ratio of Apple above average. The company is in a good financial position and it is being able to meet its current liabilities. The working capital of the firm is 128645000$-100814000$ =2783100$ It can be stated that the company has been managing its finances extremely well and that even after it pays all its liabilities it will easily be able to save a huge amount of money for its working capital. Answer 3 There are different kinds of dividend policies that are as follows: Stable dividend policy wherein the firms pay fixed sum of dividend and maintain this for all the times regardless of the different fluctuations in the market. This is advised that the companies must follow stable dividend policy wherein the stakeholders are assured to be given fixed rate of dividend per share. When the different earnings of the firm are rising at a regular interval there is satisfaction in the management and the earnings that are increased are sustainable in nature (Firth et al. 2016). Per amount of dividend is increased as well in correspondence with the fall in the price of the shares as well. Stable dividend policy fosters a proper rise in the value of the shares and the different investors pay higher premium to the different shares that promises certainty of the dividend income. However, in designing stable dividend policy, the future earning power of the firm has to be determined and the rate of dividend has to be fixed as well. Policy of no immediate dividend- This kind of policy requires huge amount of funds in order to finance the different programmes on expansion. When the access of the firms is difficult in the capital market and the availability of such funds is costlier in nature as well. Issue of bonus shares follows policy of no immediate dividend, as this will increase the capital of firm (Gopalan, Nanda and Seru 2014). Policy of regular extra dividends- The extra dividends are allowed only once in a year and the requirement of annual dividend will be exceeded by some given sum of amount. These kind of policies provide proper impression to different stakeholders the extra dividends are paid as the firms has outstanding earnings that will be skipped when the business will drop to normal level (Kajola, Adewumi and Oworu 2015). Policy of regular stock dividends- Wherein the firms who are following this policy pay the dividends in stock instead of cash and these are known as the bonus shares. These bonus shares are used to capitalize the reinvested earnings of different firms. Policy to pay irregular dividends The firm who follows such policy does not pay fixed amount of dividends and the share of the dividend varies in correspondence with the change in level of earnings. Firms with the unstable earnings adopt this policy and a large part of the entire profit may be ploughed back in the year as well (Floyd, Li and Skinner 2015). Dividend Policy followed by Apple Inc Apple follows the Stable Dividend Policy post 1995, as the company is paying stable and fixed amount of dividend regardless of any kind of fluctuations in the market. It has been seen that Apple Inc follows the stable dividend policy and the different stockholders of Apple Inc are assured of receiving fixed dividends per share as well (Apple 2018). The entire management of Apple Inc has tried their level best in maintaining the rate of dividend. Apple Inc follows the stable dividend policy as this policy helps in fostering a rise in the value of the shares. Answer 4 The economic factors, which are present in the external environment of Apple, tend to create opportunities for the firm in various fields. The external environment of the company consists of various inflation rates, exchange rates, fiscal policies and other factors that tend to influence the working of the firm. Most of the external environment factors tend to create opportunities for the firm (Apple 2018). The following are considered the most significant external environmental factors Rapid growth of developing countries (opportunity) Stable economies of developed countries (opportunity) The developing economies are growing tremendously. The income of the various groups present have been increasing and this tend The economic stability of most developed countries creates opportunities for companies like Apple to expand their businesses. However, the rapid growth of developing countries serve as an opportunity to the company who can then grow their market and adhere to the needs of the various users. This rapid growth of the company can be described as a calculated risk as it tends to have an impact on the share prices and in the same way be risky and lower them (Boyer 2013). Once the company is able to expand to the various countries then the profitability of the company will also increases. This increased profitability has a cyclic effect, which will then help the company to increase their share prices. The second opportunity lies in increasing the operations of the company in the developed companies. There are various opportunities available to the Apple In. in the developed country as well. It can customize its products and the software, which it offers, and thereby gain popularity. Apple Inc. has been reporting profits since a long time. Some of its activities can be described as risk taking but the decision makers of the firm tend to take calculated risks that then get returns for their risks, which have been taken by the company. Business Model Business model of Apple Inc. The business model of the Apple Inc. Is extremely simple. It is into app development, large publishing as well as content ownership. The company has costs like Research and Development costs, selling costs as well as Cost of Sales. The main market where the company makes maximum sales is in the phone market. Every year the company has been coming up with some new products that help it to increase the popularity all with the sales of the company (Richard, Stewart and Alan 2016). Application of Minsky analysis Minsky has defined that the three financial positions are present in any situation that tend to increase the fragility. These are: Hedge Finance: which refers to the income flows which are expected to meet the obligations related to finance every period Speculative finance- Income flows can only cover the interest costs hence the debt can be rolled over Financial Positions of a Firm Ponzi finance states that the earning of the company will not be able to cover any costs and is extremely low. The various companies often shift to these three phases of financing capabilities (Arnold 2013). The shift towards the Ponzi finance is unintentional. According to the analysis, which can be conducted after analyzing the financial reports of the firm, the company is currently in the Hedge Financing position where the earnings of the company will be able to cover all its costs. This is a good condition to be in and this shows that the stability of the firm is good and this increases the goodwill of the firm in the eyes of the investors. References Apple. ,2018.iPhone. 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